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Taxila or Takshashila (Punjabi and Urdu: ٹيکسلا; Sanskrit: तक्षशिला, 𑀢𑀓𑁆𑀱𑀰𑀺𑀮𑀸; Pali: Takkasilā; Ashokan Prakrit: 𑀢𑀔𑀲𑀺𑀮𑀸, Takkhasilā; Greek: Τάξιλα, Táxila) is a city in the Pothohar region of Punjab, Pakistan. Located in the Taxila Tehsil of Rawalpindi District, it lies approximately 25 kilometres (16 mi) northwest of the Islamabad–Rawalpindi metropolitan area and is just south of the Haripur District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Old Taxila was for a time the capital city of ancient Gāndhāra, situated on the eastern shore of the Indus River—the pivotal junction of the Indian subcontinent and Central Asia; it was founded around 1000 BCE. Some ruins at Taxila date to the time of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. In 326 BCE, the city was conquered by Alexander the Great who gained control of the city without a battle since the city was immediately surrendered to the Macedonian Empire. This was followed successively by the Maurya Empire, the Indo-Greek Kingdom, the Indo-Scythians, and the Kushan Empire. Owing to its strategic location, Taxila has changed hands many times over the centuries, with many polities vying for its control.

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